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In (1884), he wrote that England’s Tories generally favour a military and Liberals an industrial social order but that the Liberals of the latter half of the 19th century, with their legislation on hours of work, liquor licensing, sanitation, education, and so on, were developing a “New Toryism” and preparing the way for a “coming slavery.” According to Spencer, Nevertheless, Spencer’s view of such ameliorative legislation as a pernicious aid to the “unfit” and an impediment to the positive development of society through the success of its most-talented members was gradually discredited as the misery of the poor under industrial capitalism became more widely known.In the second half of the 20th century, interest in Spencer’s social Darwinism and his theory of natural rights was revived by libertarians and like-minded thinkers (e.g., the American philosopher Robert Nozick), who saw in them the basis of a moral argument against the burgeoning postwar welfare state.Spencer believed that the fundamental sociological classification was between military societies, in which cooperation was secured by force, and industrial societies, in which cooperation was voluntary and spontaneous.Evolution is not the only biological conception that Spencer applied in his sociological theories.He was, for a few months, a schoolteacher and from 1837 to 1841 a railway civil engineer.
This individualism is the key to all of Spencer’s work.
Though neither of them believed that time is an ultimate feature of reality, Spencer combined a belief in the reality of time with a belief in the eventual actualization of every possible variety of being.
He thus gave metaphysical support to the liberal principle of variety, according to which a differentiated and developing society is preferable to a monotonous and static one.
His contrast between military and industrial societies is drawn between despotism, which is primitive and bad, and individualism, which is civilized and good.
He believed that in industrial society the order achieved, though planned by no one, is delicately adjusted to the needs of all parties.